Tag Archives: Citation

Quoting directly, paraphrasing or summarizing?

3 Feb

How to quote your sources?

Quotation marks

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voltaire, paraphrased
voltaire, paraphrased (Photo credit: stanrandom)

Research advances in an environment of scientific background which an honest researcher has the obligation to quote all along his paper.

But quoting responds to some rules that most of us follow without even thinking of it.

This Post intends to structure the act of quotation or citation in a scientific paper.

Article 1: the tag or the “signal phrase” that incorporate the quotation into your own text

Our results are confirmed by the work of other academic authors who ….

Article 2: the quotation of the source material

  • Direct quote of the source always requires quotation marks:

…wrote that butterflies “flutter their wings in a synchronistic movement that produces a subtle and unforgettable music”


  • Indirect quote of the source using a paraphrase, don’t require quotation marks:

found that butterflies synchronize their movement such producing a music which he qualifies as subtle and unforgettable


  • Indirect quote using a summary of the source, don’t require quotation marks:

…. described how butterflies flutter their wings

Article 3: the in text citation including in parentheses the last name of the quoted author and the year of the publication or the number of the reference:

  • (Herrera, 2009)


  • [3]

Article 4: the list of sources also called “references”, “bibliography” or “works cited” is placed at the end of the paper in alphabetic order or in order of appearance in the paper:

  • Herrera, A. (2009, July). Masters of Migration. Americas, (4), 57-63. Retrieved June 30, 2010, from Research Library. (Document ID: 1742961721).


  • [3] Herrera, A. “Masters of Migration.” Americas 1 Jul 2009: Research Library, ProQuest. Web. 30 Jun. 2010.


Caveat: if you don’t respect these four articles here above you might be responsible of a plagiarism, which is a very severe misconduct for a scientist.

Learn more:

Documenting Sources


An Aid to Paraphrasing


Examples of paraphrasing: Good and Bad


Le savoir plagier et/ou le paraphrasage : copier sans se faire prendre ?


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