Tag Archives: Academic publishing
2 May

A tremendous post on the question to know whether information technologies trump the scholarly publishing or whether the academic publishing subordinates itself to the information technologies. In my view the response is that both statements are true because the respective influence is not at all linear but instead pretty much interactive. As for the sponsored payments by the tobacco industry for author-paid open access publishing, the expression of concern is also relevant for the traditional publishing because private corporations can very well sponsor subscriptions in reader-paid publishing. The key point is the conflict of interest disclosure (which is perhaps more easy to uncover in the open access publishing where the payment is made on behalf of the author).

Quoting directly, paraphrasing or summarizing?

3 Feb

How to quote your sources?

Quotation marks

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voltaire, paraphrased
voltaire, paraphrased (Photo credit: stanrandom)

Research advances in an environment of scientific background which an honest researcher has the obligation to quote all along his paper.

But quoting responds to some rules that most of us follow without even thinking of it.

This Post intends to structure the act of quotation or citation in a scientific paper.

Article 1: the tag or the “signal phrase” that incorporate the quotation into your own text

Our results are confirmed by the work of other academic authors who ….

Article 2: the quotation of the source material

  • Direct quote of the source always requires quotation marks:

…wrote that butterflies “flutter their wings in a synchronistic movement that produces a subtle and unforgettable music”


  • Indirect quote of the source using a paraphrase, don’t require quotation marks:

found that butterflies synchronize their movement such producing a music which he qualifies as subtle and unforgettable


  • Indirect quote using a summary of the source, don’t require quotation marks:

…. described how butterflies flutter their wings

Article 3: the in text citation including in parentheses the last name of the quoted author and the year of the publication or the number of the reference:

  • (Herrera, 2009)


  • [3]

Article 4: the list of sources also called “references”, “bibliography” or “works cited” is placed at the end of the paper in alphabetic order or in order of appearance in the paper:

  • Herrera, A. (2009, July). Masters of Migration. Americas, (4), 57-63. Retrieved June 30, 2010, from Research Library. (Document ID: 1742961721).


  • [3] Herrera, A. “Masters of Migration.” Americas 1 Jul 2009: Research Library, ProQuest. Web. 30 Jun. 2010.


Caveat: if you don’t respect these four articles here above you might be responsible of a plagiarism, which is a very severe misconduct for a scientist.

Learn more:

Documenting Sources


An Aid to Paraphrasing


Examples of paraphrasing: Good and Bad


Le savoir plagier et/ou le paraphrasage : copier sans se faire prendre ?


Research Works Act

7 Jan

Free access to publicly funded research

English: This is the first issue of California...

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How can people access freely to publicly funded research results?
From two things one: – either the government agencies buy the copyrights of privates scholarly publishers and then make available articles on governmental web sites
– or it publish himself the final reports or the intermediate or progress reports that the publicly funded researchers have produced.
But one thing for sure, since the recent “research works act” bill, the government or the federal agencies have no more the possibility to force or to mandate for free, by rule, the dissemination of the private scholarly publications issued from the peer reviewed journals.

A third possibility should be the government using the open access journals, but in that case instead of buying the copyrights afterward, federal agencies will be charged before the publication procedure.

Nevertheless, we have to keep in mind that the fundamental difference between a final report of a research work and a peer reviewed article issued from the same research work are: – the length (average length for a report: 60 pages vs 20 for an article), – the use of technical and complex words in the writing (because the articles are peer reviewed and aimed at the intention of a wider number of readers, mostly outside the institution, technical words and context have to be explained), – the transfer of responsibility in case of mistake or falsification of data (private publisher are eager to retract the article if a falsification or a conflict of interest is disclosed but will a federal agencies do the same?) and last but not least – scholarly publications are the products of multinational, world-wide expanded, globalised enterprises that are independent from the policy of a single state. And this must be seen as a guarantee of the independence of science from political pressure like, for example, the recent attempt by the US government to stop the publication by a Netherlander searchers team of their findings on the H5N1 flu virus mutation capacity (see here and here for more information).

Below are three references if you want to read more on the topic of the dissemination of research works:

1)My Argument for Public Access to Research Reports


2)Publishers Applaud “Research Works Act,”Bipartisan Legislation To End

Government Mandates on Private-Sector Scholarly Publishing


3)A BILLTo ensure the continued publication and integrity of peer-

reviewed research works by the private sector.


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