An example of cross over intervention study: when Semelweiss exchanged medical students for midwives in two maternity services of Vienna Hospital the exceeding puerperal fever mortality rates followed the students (who have made dissections of corpses a few time before and didn’t wash their hands). A great epidemiology study 50 years before Pasteur. Semelweiss published his article “aetiology of puerperal fever” in 1861 which is considered as the seminal work for antiseptie.
But his colleagues rejected his findings making thousands of unnecessary death of young womens across Europe with terrible sufferings. The remorse of being rejected and the sorrow of staying powerless facing his coleagues’ rejection of his findings and ignorance caused the death from madness of Semelweiss in a asylum.
Céline wrote:”Nothing is free here on earth. Everything must be punished in return, the good actions as the evil ones, sooner or later. In case of good action the punishment is more severe necessarily”
A very great book, all health services searchers should read: